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4.2 Irregular Past Participles

Past participles are forms of a verb that are used with the passive voice and with the present perfect tense. These participles are also called the third form or V3 of the verb. V1 is the base form, V2 is the past tense, and V3 is the past participle.

To make a participle from a regular verb, just add “ed” to the base form. For example:

  • The participle of create is created.
  • The participle of need is needed.

There is no formula to make a participle from an irregular verb, unfortunately. You just have to memorize them. You’ll notice some patterns though. Many irregular past participles end with the letter “n” like: given, eaten, spoken, and taken. Some irregular past participles stay the same as the base form, like: come, cut, put, and run.

The best way to learn the irregular past participles is to start practicing! In these three exercises, try to remember the participle form. Look at the table below if you forget.

Practice the past participles of 66 of the most common irregular verbs.

Set #1 (22 verbs: be – get)

Set #2 (22 verbs: give – see)

Set #3 (22 words: sell – write)

Base Verb
V1
Past Tense
V2
Past Participle
V3
bewas
were
been
becomebecamebecome
blowblewblown
breakbrokebroken
bringbroughtbrought
buildbuiltbuilt
buyboughtbought
catchcaughtcaught
comecamecome
cutcutcut
dodiddone
drawdrewdrawn
drinkdrankdrunk
drivedrovedriven
eatateeaten
fallfellfallen
feelfeltfelt
fightfoughtfought
findfoundfound
flyflewflown
forgetforgotforgotten
getgotgotten
givegavegiven
gowentgone
hanghunghung
havehadhad
hearheardheard
hidehidhidden
hithithit
holdheld held
hurthurthurt
leaveleftleft
lendlentlent
loselostlost
makemademade
meetmetmet
putputput
quitquitquit
readreadread
rideroderidden
riseroserisen
runrunrun
saysaidsaid
seesawseen
sellsoldsold
sendsentsent
shakeshookshaken
shineshoneshone
shootshotshot
showshowedshown
singsangsung
sleepsleptslept
speakspokespoken
spendspentspent
spreadspreadspread
standstoodstood
stealstolestolen
swimswamswum
taketooktaken
telltoldtold
thinkthoughtthought
throwthrewthrown
wakewokewoken
wearworeworn
winwonwon
writewrotewritten