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Past participles are forms of a verb that are used with the passive voice and with the present perfect tense. These participles are also called the third form or V3 of the verb. V1 is the base form, V2 is the past tense, and V3 is the past participle.
To make a participle from a regular verb, just add “ed” to the base form. For example:
There is no formula to make a participle from an irregular verb, unfortunately. You just have to memorize them. You’ll notice some patterns though. Many irregular past participles end with the letter “n” like: given, eaten, spoken, and taken. Some irregular past participles stay the same as the base form, like: come, cut, put, and run.
The best way to learn the irregular past participles is to start practicing! In these three exercises, try to remember the participle form. Look at the table below if you forget.